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1
WE ARE DEVELOPING!
AN ANTHROPOLOGIST AMONG THE MARGINALISED
POPULATION IN A THIRD WORLD URBAN SCENARIO
By
Subrata Sankar Bagchi
Lecturer-in-Anthropology,
Bangabasi Evening College, Calcutta
&
Arnab Das
Lecturer-in-Anthropology,
Bangabasi Evening College, Calcutta
SUMMARY
Findings in the present research suggest that in a Third World city like Calcutta (now
Kolkata), the inability of the market economy and/or of the state policies to provide
adequate private as well as collective means of consumption particularly in the form of
shelter and urban services to the increasing proportion of city dwellers, including a vast
number of the regularly employed salaried workers and practically all people employed in
the so-called 'informal sector of the economy' creates a huge proportion of marginalized
population in terms of urban space.
The settlements incorporating these marginalized populations are traditionally connotated
as the impediments of urban development and as possible environmental hazards without
protected and safe water-supply and the hygienic waste disposal facilities or adequate
ventilation; possible presence of endemic diseases in the locality; grossly insufficient
municipal services; lack of knowledge or personal and domestic hygiene; inadequate
primary health care; none or less secondary and tertiary referral curative facilities and the
like. Present investigators find themselves in front of a multidimensional set of radically
discontinuous realities, whose frames range from the still surviving niche(s) of marginal
'self-help' settlement(s) all the way to the unimaginable pressure from decentring of global
capitalism itself, manifested among other things in the form of steady growth of collective
consumption of urban facilities creating ever increasing need for urban renewal.
Urban as a built environment is the physical expression of the organization of space.
Thus it not only caters for the "Hardware" but also people, their activities, wants, needs,
values, life-styles and other aspects of culture or what the present workers would prefer
to call "Software". Very notion of urbanization be it from the demographers' point of
view redistribution of population between rural and urban areas or from other social
scientists' point of view i.e. changing morphological structure of urban agglomerations
and its development has to address the whole range of the "Hardware" as well as the
"Software". In the present study, when dealing with the domains of environment and
development in the backdrop of urbanization in a Third World situation, present worker
would like to address some of the foci on this issue as possible precursor of a central
dilemma in Third World urban planning from socio-political point of view.
The dominant notion of development in Third World situation has long been dependent
on the successful transfer of technology and economic growth (Smelser, 1963; Smith,
1973), but the study hopes to reveal that it has proved to be a grossly inadequate one as
this notion of development does not take the interest of the growing section of vulnerable
marginalised population into consideration. This study can epitomize the fact that the

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unimaginable pressure created from this 'dehumanized' economic growth, now termed
as the processes of globalization, may even uproot these marginalised populations from
its present locale.
The cynosure of the present study is a marginal settlement* locally called Jhupri on the
east side of the Canal West Road along the Circular Canal near Narkeldanga Police
Station. Studying a Third World reality with a methodology standardized in the West as
well as incompatible. However, the present worker was constrained to use many such
techniques for this purpose. Present investigator, by training anthropologists, in the
present work was dependent more on the qualitative field research methods consisting of
intensive study of small-scale population (361 families having 1475 persons) and long-
term association with the respondents with non-reactive data collection as well as
unobtrusive participant role (as far as practicable).
Details of the relevant part of the data collected from the said settlement are given in the
tabulated form in the appendix with the present paper. A brief analysis here may reveal
the required picture. The age and sex-wise distribution (Table - 1) of the populations
show that the persons under 15 years of age are considerably higher combined with very
low presence of the persons over the age of 45 years in this population which would
primarily mean high birthrate combined with poor rate of survival. Similar picture is
reflected in the child-woman ratio (Table - 2) of the population. Religion-wise account
(Table - 3) shows that the Muslims are the predominant in this population. Hindu
population (Table - 4) in this settlement is entirely composed of by the lower castes like
Namasudra, Munchi, Goala etc. The last two accounts reflect the result of an age-old
backwardness among the minorities and the low-caste Hindus in this subcontinent. The
mother tongue (Table - 5) of majority of the population is Bangla that is followed by
Hindi and Urdu. Distribution of population according to marital status (Table - 6)
shows that very few marriageable males remained unmarried in this population and this
occurrence is even fewer among the females. Predominant group of age at marriage
(Table - 7) for the females is 15-19 years and for the males is 20-24 years in both the
populations. Distribution of the two populations according to the size of the family
(Table - 8) however shows the propensity more towards a larger family of more than 4
members notwithstanding the overwhelming proportion of them opted for a nuclear type
of family (Table - 9). The proportion of the persons remained completely or almost
illiterate, as reflected in the distribution according to standard of education (Table -
10), is quite high among people of this settlement and less than 1% in both the
populations passed the matriculation examination. The frequencies of holding of ration
card (Table - 11), still an essential condition of legitimacy as a city-dweller in Calcutta,
are very negligible among this people and those negligible few holding ration card
registered some other place as their home address. The distribution according to voting
status (Table - 12) shows that all the possible voters have voting rights. This fact shows
that in a Third World urban situation like this the criterion of having voting right in a city
may not be considered enough to gain legitimacy as a city-dweller of the same city. The
profile of a population according to the places of birth (Table - 13) may reveal among
other things the presence or absence of chain migration and urban ethnicity in that
population (Das, Bagchi and Sengupta, 1995). In this population sizable section people
were born and brought up in the present place or in an adjacent place and another sizable

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section were born in Bangladesh. Similarly, people born in the provinces of Bihar and
Uttar Pradesh form large sections. These are the indicative of the fact that the chain
migration is present from various places in neighboring Bangladesh and from the various
places in the provinces of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Another factor may come-out on a
closer look at the pattern of migration of the studied populations that the migrations from
the rural West Bengal have remarkably diminished in the recent past may be due to the
two decades of land-reform efforts of the leftist government in West Bengal. The
distribution according to the time of settlement (Table - 14) shows that most of the
settlers here were settled between 11 and 15 years.
Distribution according to the involvement in workforce (Table - 15) reveals that in this
population the percentage of the working population are as high as 71.32%. A closer
study of the working population leads the present workers to the profile of child laborer
population (Table - 16) which shows that as high as 22.37% of the population are the
child laborer. It reveals a sense of desperation among the both the populations to survive
and/or the oblivious situation due to the widespread illiteracy among the adults that
results in exposing their future work-force to the ruthless labor market at such an early
age. Primary occupation-wise (Table - 17) profile of the working population in both
the populations shows that the category of urban waste recycle workers dominate among
both the people of this settlement. Another sizable section of the working population in
both the cases is what the present worker calls sellers of their labor to people for the
personal service and consumption of the buyers, instead of using their labor power to
obtain a surplus value meaning this is the most popular form of subsistence among these
populations in the absence of any economically viable skill or fixed/movable asset.
Another category of occupation which the present worker calls skin-seller exchanging
their survival against the possibility of potential destruction (e.g. prostitutes, delinquents
etc.) or trade their deterioration (e.g. beggars) is very low among this population (0.47%).
This means despite the desperation, these poverty-stricken people in Calcutta, unlike in
some other Third World cities, are reluctant to engage themselves in this type of
occupation. The distribution according to mode of receiving payment of wage or
income (Table - 18) shows that most of them receive payments on daily basis further
reiterate findings regarding uncertain means of income. The distribution according to
family income per day (Table - 19) reveals that majority of the people earns less than
100 rupees per day and a sizable section in both the populations earn less than 50 rupees
per day. At the same time the profile regarding the level of monthly savings (Table -20)
shows that the families with little or no savings are also high in this population.
An account on the level of the basic amenities available (Table - 21) i.e. the level of
(government-mediated) collective consumption particularly in the forms of shelter and
urban services available reveals a very important picture of the level of marginalization in
term of urban space of both the populations in the city of Calcutta. Here, there are very
few cases of having separate ventilation, separate kitchen-space or electricity connection
in the shelter. Water permeability of the shelter and/or water logging during the rainy
season is very common in this settlement. The cases of the availability of adequate
hygienic toilet facility are almost non-existent. Supply of safe water for drinking is
essential for survival and thus they carry in the safe drinking water from outside the

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settlement failing which they suffer from different water-borne diseases but the safe
water for bathing, washing or toilet purposes are mostly absent here.
Appalling inadequacy exists in this population on the knowledge of personal and
domestic hygiene (Table - 22) as indicated by the use of mosquito net, use of filtered
drinking water, administration of immunizing doses and the visit to secondary and
tertiary referral clinic. The accounts on the presence of different diseases (Table - 23)
show that the diseases related to skin is very common which are normally caused by the
prevalent occupational pattern of these people relating to the urban waste (scrap). The
frequencies of the diseases related to stomach or malnutrition follow next to the skin
diseases.
Different forms of addictions (Table -24) are very common here with more than a
quarter of both the populations have two to three simultaneous addictions (Table - 25).
Most common form of addiction in both the settlements is smoking cigarette/Biri
followed by chewing alcohol and tobacco. Importantly few females are also found to
have some addictions that are not very common in this part of the world.
These settlements have long been seen as the aberrant manifestation of urbanization
process both in terms of environment and development. This vision is the possible fall-
out of the modernist tendency to look upon the spaces of city as an epiphenomenon of
social functions. But the unimaginable pressure from decentring global capitalism
wrought the complete transformations in all levels of urban as a built environment
especially in the latent aspects of activities, behaviours and settings communicating
identity, status, wealth, power, individuation process and so on - as well as instrumental
meanings i.e. material cues for identifying the uses for which settings are intended and
social situation in the urban area.
Thus as the present study unravels the fact that these all-too-familiar anthropological
categories of urban space becomes less and less intelligible in a Third World City like
Calcutta as a result of the struggle among different interest groups which in turn is the
result of the aforesaid pressure of globalization. So whereas the spaces meant for
Personal Occupancy and Community Occupancy are increasingly pervaded by the urban
authorities for the purpose of individuation i.e., the standardization of persons for
purposes of taxation, registration and surveillance on the one hand. On the other hand,
urban authorities’ efforts to retrieve the spaces meant for Social Occupancy (technically
termed as Urban Renewal Process) causing erosion of the space for Free Occupancy as
well as some of the spaces of Personal/Community Occupancy (not legally acquired).
During the course of present study author has witnessed one such erosion of a whole
settlement as a part of the urban renewal process and the other settlement is reportedly on
the way of eroding in near future. All these are the resultant compulsions on the part of
the urban authorities to provide better urban services and/or collective means of
consumption to the tax payers/'legitimate' city dwellers which in turn is required by these
people for better individualism i.e. consumption of commodities for private hedonism, an
essential precondition for future foreign as well as indigenous investments in the
province. But no sign of abetting of the negative effects of globalization is still visible in

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the Third World situation and thus the poverty-stricken marginalized urban population
deprived of adequate shelter and urban services and basic opportunities of life would
continue to emerge in the Third World cities like Calcutta. On the other hand, local
authorities in the Third World cities like Calcutta would be under immense pressure from
the processes of globalization and the resultant de-centering of global capitalism to
provide better urban services to the 'legitimate' city dwellers and to undertake more such
urban renewal programs at the cost of those 'illegitimate' settlers and/or to do-away with
the 'legitimization' of some of the present slum settlements.
Thus on exploring the domains of environment and development in the backdrop of Third
World urbanization policy present worker as a part of introspection tend to disengage
urban space from its dependence on functions and to see it as an autonomous formal
system independent of any simple historical determinism. This functional disengagement
(which some experts may cal postmodern decadence) and subsequent acceptance of the
formal urban peculiarities can be seen as symptoms and expressions of a new and
historically original dilemma in Third World urbanization policy that involves one's
insertion as individual subjects into a multidimensional set of radically discontinuous
realities, whose frames range from the still surviving niche(s) of marginal 'self-help'
settlement(s) all the way to the unimaginable pressure from decentring of global
capitalism itself where no global explanation in credible in this age of purposive
rationality

TABULAR DATA FOLLOWBELOW.

REFERENCES CITED
Cardoso, F. H. and Faletto, E.
1979 Dependency and Development in Latin America. Berkeley.
Castells, M.
1977 The Urban Question. London.
Castells, M.
1983a The City and the Grass Roots. London.
Das, A. and S. S. Bagchi with S. K. Sengupta.
1995 The Punjabis in a Peripheral Locality of Calcutta. Journal of Indian Anthropological
Society 30: 59-66.
Rapoport, A.
1977 Human Aspects of Urban Form. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
1990 The Meaning of the Built Environment, revised edn, Tucson: University of Arizona
Press.

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TABLES
TABLE – 1: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO AGE AND SEX
POPULATION
AGE
GROUP
MALE
FEMALE
0 – 4
179
12.13%
95
6.44%
5 – 9
116
7.86%
114
7.73%
10 - 14
82
5.56%
79
5.35%
15 - 19
42
2.85%
45
3.05%
20 - 24
19
1.28%
72
4.48%
25 - 29
45
3.05%
69
4.68%
30 - 34
40
2.71%
66
4.47%
35 - 39
69
4.48%
78
5.97%
40 - 44
53
3.59%
48
3.25%
45 - 49
41
2.78%
14
0.95%
50 - 54
36
2.44%
9
0.61%
55 +
41
2.71%
23
3.23%
TOTAL
763
51.68%
712
48.32%
Total
Population 1475
100.00%
TABLE - 2: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO CHILD-WOMAN RATIO
POPULATION
NO. OF CHILDREN
BELOW THE AGE
OF 5 YEARS (A)
NO. OF WOMEN
BETWEEN THE AGE
OF 15 YEARS AND 45
YEARS (B)
CHILD WOMAN
RATIO = A/B X 100
Population
274
378
72.49

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TABLE – 3: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO RELIGION / COMMUNITY
RELIGION /
COMMUNITY
POPULATION
Muslim
1199 (81.29%)
Hindu
172 (11.66%)
Christian
Others
104 (7.05%)
Total
1475 (100.00%)
TABLE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF THE HINDU POPULATION ACCORDING TO CASTE.
CASTE
HINDUS IN POPULA-
TION (%)
Brahmin
Kayastha
19 (11.05%)
Mahishya
32 (18.60%)
Baishnab
20 (11.63%)
Sutradhar
14 (8.14%)
Sarnakar
Subarnabanik
Namasudra
37 (21.51%)
Kaibarta
12 (6.98%)
Kairi
Baidya
Munchi
21 (12.21%)
Goala
17 (9.88%)
Total Hindu
Population
172 (100.00%)
TABLE – 5: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO MOTHER TONGUE
MOTHER TONGUE
POPULATION
Bangla
684 (46.37%)
Urdu
542 (36.74%)
Hindi
145 (9.83%)
Others
104 (7.05%)
Total
1475 (100.00%)
TABLE – 6: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS
POPULATION
MARITAL
STATUS
M
F
T
Married*
364
24.68%
404
27.39%
768
52.07%
Unmarried
82
5.56%
121
8.20%
291
19.73%
Total
Marriageable-
Population**
468
31.73%
503
34.10%
971
65.83%
Total
Population
1475
100.00%
* Includes widow/widower.
** Excludes the population below 10 years of age.

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TABLE –7: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO AGE AT MARRIAGE
AGE
GROUP
POPULATION
M F
10 –14
29
1.97%
18
1.22%
15 – 19
29
1.97%
338
24.27%
20 – 24
292
19.80%
28
1.90%
25 – 29
43
2.91%
30 +
Total
364
24.68%
404
27.39%
Total Marri-
ageable
Population
971
65.83%
Total
Population
1475
100.00%
TABLE 8: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO THE SIZE OF THE FAMILY.
SIZE OF THE
FAMILY
NUMBER OF
FAMILIES IN
POPULA-
TION (%)
Single Member
2-4 Members
177 (49.03%)
More than 4
members
184 (50.97%)
Total
361 (100.00%)
TABLE 9: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF FAMILY.
TYPE OF
FAMILY
NO. OF
FAMILIES IN
POPULA-
TION (%)
Nuclear
358 (99.17%)
Composite
a. Polygamous
b. Extended
2 (0.55%)
1 (0.28%)
Total
361 (100.00%)

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TABLE 10: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO STANDARD OF EDUCATION
Educational
Standard
POPULATION
M F
Illiterate
102
6.91
%
429
29.08
%
Can Sign
Only
197
13.35
%
113
7.66
%
I - IV
152
10.30
%
59
4.00
%
V – VIII
87
5.90
%
11
0.74
%
IX – X
32
2.17
%
5
0.34
%
Matricula-
tion
14
0.95
%
Higher
Secondary
Graduation
or above
Total
584
39.59
%
617
41.83
%
Possible
Total
Illiterate
1201
81.42
%
Total
Population 1475
100.00
%
*Excludes the population under 5 years of age.
TABLE 11: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO HOLDING OF RATION
CARD
RATION CARD
HOLDING
POPULATION
Present
8
0.54
%
Absent
1467
99.46
%
Total Population
1475
100.00
%

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TABLE 12: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO VOTING STATUS.
VOTING STATUS
POPULATION
Voter
617
41.83
%
Non-voter
126
8.54
%
Total Possible Voter * 743
50.37
%
Total Population
1475
100.00
%
*Excludes the population under 18 years of age.
TABLE 13: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO PLACE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
POPULATION
Calcutta
382
25.90%
Adjoining Districts of
Calcutta
159
10.78%
Other Districts of West
Bengal
31
2.10%
Bihar
385
26.10%
Uttar Pradesh
59
4.00%
Orissa
Other States of India
98
6.64%
Bangladesh
353
23.93%
Total
1475
100.00%
TABLE 14: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO TIME OF SETTLEMENT
SETTLEMENT
PERIOD
POPULATION
Less than 5 years
242
16.41%
5 - 10 years
215
14.59%
11 - 15 years
384
26.03%
16 - 20 years
317
21.49%
21 - 25 years
194
13.15%
More than 25 years
123
8.34%
Total
1475
100.00%

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TABLE 15: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO INVOLVEMENT IN WORK
FORCE
PEOPLE IN ACTIVE
WORK FORCE
POPULATION
AGE GROUP
MALE
FEMALE
5 - 9 years
91
6.17%
87
5.90%
10 - 14 years
79
5.35%
73
4.95%
15 - 54 years
342
23.19%
325
22.03%
55 years and above
36
2.44%
19
1.29%
Total
548
37.15%
504
34.17%
Total Working
Population
1052
71.32%
Total Population
1475
100.00%
TABLE 16: DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHILD LABORER POPULATION ACCORDING TO
AGE AND SEX
CHILD LABOURER IN
POPULATION
AGE
GROUP M
%
F
%
T
%
5 – 9
91
6.17%
87
5.90%
178
6.04%
10–14
79
5.35%
73
4.95%
152
5.16%
Total
170
11.52% 160
10.85% 330
22.37%

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TABLE 17: DISTRIBUTION OF WORKING POPULATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF
PRIMARY OCCUPATION
PRIMARY OCCUPATION
WP*
Salaried Workers of ‘Traditional’ Sector of the
Economy
Temporary
Permanent
Total
13
1.23%
13
1.37%
Skilled Workers (Mistris), Handicraft Persons and
Small Merchants
Skilled Worker
Small Merchant
Total
65
6.18%
19
1.81%
84
7.98
Sellers of Their Labor to People For the Personal
Service and Consumption of the Buyers Instead of
Using Their Labor Power to Obtain a Surplus Value
Domestic Worker
Porter
Van/Rickshaw Puller
Helper in Construction
Helper in Transport
Paper-Packet (Thonga)
Maker
Others
Total
159
15.11%
62
5.89%
44
4.18
56
5.32%
4
0.38
59
5.61%
384
6.50%
Skin Sellers Exchanging Their Survival Against the
Possibility of Potential Destruction (e.g. Prostitute,
Delinquent etc.) or Trade Their Deterioration (e.g.
Beggar)
Beggar
Prostitute**
Delinquent**
Total
5
0.47%
5
0.47%
Urban Waste Recycle Workers
Scrap-Picker
Scrap – Buyer (Door To
Door)
Scrap –Sorter
Scrap Dealer
Total
112
10.65%
356
3.84%
78
7.41%
20
1.90%
566
53.80%
Total Working Population
1052
100%
*WP indicates Working Population .
**In spite of the occasional presence of such activities none found to be engaged in primary occupation.

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TABLE 18: DISTRIBUTION OF WORKING POPULATION ACCORDING TO MODE 0F
RECEIVING PAYMENT OF WAGE OR INCOME.
MODE OF RECEIVING PAYMENT OF WAGE OR
INCOME
WORKING
POPULA
TION
Daily
733
69.68%
Weekly
68
6.46%
Monthly
251
20.44%
Total Working Population
1052
100.00%
TABLE 19: DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES ACCORDING TO FAMILY INCOME PER DAY.
LEVEL OF FAMILY INCOME PER DAY
NUMBER OF
FAMILY IN
POPULA-
TION (%)
Less than Rs.50/-
78 (21.61%)
More than Rs.50/- but less than Rs.75/-
165 (45.71%)
More than Rs.75/- but less than Rs.100/-
197 (54.57%)
More than Rs.100/-
79 (21.88%)
Total No. of Families
361 (100.00%)
TABLE 20: DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL OF MONTHLY
SAVINGS
. LEVEL OF MONTHLY FAMILY SAVINGS
NUMBER OF
FAMILIES
IN POPULA-
TION (%)
Non – existent
221 (61.22%)
Less than Rs.100/-
81 (22.44%)
More than Rs.100/- but less than Rs.200/-
38 (10.53%)
More than Rs.200/-
21 (5.82%)
Total No. of Families
361 (100.00%)

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TABLE 21: DISTRIBUTION OF THE FAMILIES OF THE POPULATION
ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL OF BASIC AMENITIES AVAILABLE
LEVEL OF BASIC AMENITIES
POPULA-
TION (%)
Separate
Ventilation
Present
Inadequate
Absent
19 (5.26%)
342 (94.74%)
Separate
Kitchen Space
Present
Inadequate
Absent
12 (3.32%)
349 (96.67%)
Electricity
Present
Inadequate
Absent
8 (2.22%)
353 (97.78%)
Hygienic
Toilet
Present
Inadequate
Absent
3 (0.83%)
310 (85.87%)
48 (13.30%)
Water
Permeability/
Logging
Roof
Wall
Floor
Present
Inadequate
Absent
Present
Inadequate
Absent
Present
Inadequate
Absent
235 (65.10%)
126 (34.90%)
202 (55.95%)
159 (44.04%)
245 (67.87%)
116 (32.13%)
Filtered and
Safe Water
Supply
Drinking
Bathing
Washing
Toilet
Present
Inadequate
Absent
Present
Inadequate
Absent
Present
Inadequate
Absent
Present
Inadequate
Absent
289 (80.05%)
72 (19.94%)
56 (15.51%)
305 (84.49%)
14 (3.88%)
347 (96.12%)
132 (36.56%)
229 (64.43%)

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TABLE 22: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF
PERSONAL AND DOMESTIC HYGIENE USING SOME INDICATORS
INDICATOR
POPULA-
TION (%)
Use of Mosquito
Net
Regular
Irregular
287 (19.46%)
1188 (80.54%)
Use of Filtered
Drinking Water
Regular
Irregular
1287 (87.25%)
188 (12.75%)
Administration of
Immunizing Doses Regular
Irregular
481 (32.61%)
994 (67.39%)
Visit to the
Hospitals/Public
Health Centers
Regular
Irregular
789 (53.49%)
686 (46.51%)
Visit to Secondary
and Tertiary
Referral Clinic
Regular
Irregular
359 (24.34%)
1116 (75.66%)
TABLE 23: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO THE PRESENCE OF
DISEASES
TYPE OF
DISEASE
POPULA-
TION (%)
Related to
Stomach
Present
Absent
279 (18.91%)
1196 (81.08%)
Related to Skin
Present
Absent
368 (24.95%)
1107 (75.05%)
Related to
Malnutrition
Present
Absent
89 (6.03%)
1386 (93.97%)
Chronic illnesses
related to Heart,
Lung or Nerves
Present
Absent
15 (1.02%)
1460 (98.93%)
Other Illnesses
Present
Absent
98 (6.64%)
1377 (93.36%)

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TABLE 24: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO THE FORM OF
ADDICTION.
FORM OF
ADDICTION
POPULATION
M F T
Smoking
Cigarette/Biri
P
A 519 43 562
35.19% 2.91% 38.10%
244 669 913
16.54 % 43.35% 61.90%
Chewing
Tobacco
P
A 281 61 342
19.05% 4.13% 23.19%
482 651 1133
32.68% 44.13% 76.81%
Ganja
P
A 121 2 123
8.20% 0.13% 8.34%
642 710 1352
43.52% 48.13% 91.66%
Cocaine or
Other Drugs
P
A 26 26
1.76% 1.76%
737 712 1449
49.97% 48.27% 98.24%
Alcohol
P
A 351 35 386
23.80% 2.37% 26.17%
412 677 1089
27.93% 45.90% 73.63%
Total
763 712 1475
51.73% 48.27% 100%
TABLE 25: DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF
ADDICTIONS PRESENT IN AN INDIVIDUAL
POPULATION
NO. OF
ADDIC-
TIONS
M
F
T
NONE
212
14.37%
651
44.13%
863
58.51%
ONE
149
10.10%
43
2.91%
192
13.02%
2 TO 3
372
25.22%
18
1.22%
390
26.44%
4+
30
2.03%
30
2.03%
Total
763
51.73%
712
48.27% 1475
100.00%